Monday, May 10, 2010

TURKEY - Country profile




The flag of Turkey (Turkish: Türk bayrağı) is a red flag with a white crescent moon and a star in its centre. The flag is called Ay Yıldız (literally, moon star).

The flag has a complex origin since it is an ancient design, and uses the same symbols of the late flag of the Ottoman Empire which were adopted in 1844 with the Tanzimat reforms ; though the shape, placement and shade of the color vary. The geometric proportions of the flag were legally standardized with the Turkish Flag Law in 1936.


The İstiklâl Marşı (Independence March) is the Turkish National Anthem, officially adopted on 12 March 1921 - two and a half years before the 29 October 1923 establishment of the Republic of Turkey, both as a motivational musical saga for the troops fighting in the Turkish War of Independence, and as an anthem for a Republic that was yet to be established.

Penned by Mehmet Akif Ersoy and ultimately composed by Osman Zeki Üngör, the theme is one of affection for the Turkish homeland, freedom, and faith, of sacrifice for liberty, and of hope and devotion, explored through visual, tactile and kinesthetic imagery as they relate to the flag, the human spirit and the soil of the homeland.

The manuscript by Ersoy, between the title line İstiklâl Marşı and the first text line, carries the dedication Kahraman Ordumuza – "To our Heroic Army", the army that won the Independence War. The lyrics reflect on the sacrifice of the soldiers during the War.

Of the ten-stanza anthem, only the first two quatrains are typically sung – with an upright, immobile and solemn composure. A framed version of the national anthem typically occupies the wall above the blackboard in the classrooms of every public – as well as almost every private – school in Turkey (accompanied by a Turkish flag, a photograph of the country's founding father Atatürk, and a copy of Atatürk's famous inspirational speech to the nation's youth).

The composition has also been adopted as the National Anthem of the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus.

A scroll displaying the first two quatrains of the anthem was depicted on the reverse of the Turkish 100 lira banknotes of 1983-1989.


Official Name:
Türkiye Cumhuriyeti
local short form: Türkiye
Int'l long form: Republic of Turkey
Int'l short form: Turkey

ISO Country Code: tr

Capital City: Ankara (pop. 3.7 million)

Other Cities:
Istanbul (9.2 million), Izmir (3.2 million), Bursa (1.9 million), Adana (1.7 million)

Type: Republic
Independence: 29 October 1923
Constitution: 7 November 1982

Location: southeastern Europe and southwestern Asia
Area: 766 640 sq. km. (296 000 sq. mi.)
Terrain: Narrow coastal plain surrounds Anatolia, an inland plateau becomes increasingly rugged as it progresses eastward. Turkey includes one of the more earthquake-prone areas of the world.
Highest Mountain: Mount Ararat 5,137 metres (16,854 ft)

Climate: Moderate in coastal areas, harsher temperatures inland.

Nationality: Noun--Turk(s). Adjective--Turkish
Population (2008): 71 517 100
Ethnic groups: Turkish, Kurdish, other
Religions: Muslim 98%, Christian, Bahai and Jewish
Languages: Turkish (official), Kurdish, and Arabic
Literacy: 82%.

Natural resources: Coal, iron ore, copper, chromium, antimony, mercury, gold, barite, borate, celestite (strontium), emery, feldspar, limestone, magnesite, marble, perlite, pumice, pyrites (sulfur), clay, arable land, hydropower.

Agriculture products: Tobacco, cotton, grain, olives, sugar beets, pulse, citrus; livestock.

Industries: Textiles, food processing, autos, mining (coal, chromite, copper, boron), steel, petroleum, construction, lumber, paper.

Exports partners: Germany 15.8%, USA 8%, UK 7.8%, Italy 6.8%, France 6% (2003)

Imports partners: Germany 13.6%, Italy 7.9%, Russia 7.8%, France 6%, UK 5%, USA 5%, Switzerland 4.3% (2003)

Currency: Turkish Lira (TL)

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