Monday, May 10, 2010

HUNGARY - Country profile




The flag of Hungary (Hungarian : Magyarország zászlója) is a horizontal tricolour of red, white and green. In this exact form, it has been the official flag of Hungary since October 1, 1957.


"Himnusz" (in English : Hymn) – a song beginning with the words Isten, áldd meg a magyart (God, bless the Hungarians) – is a musical poetic prayer that serves as the official national anthem of Hungary. It was adopted in 1844 and the first stanza is sung at official ceremonies. The words were written by Ferenc Kölcsey, a nationally renowned poet in 1823, and its currently official musical setting was composed by the romantic composer Ferenc Erkel, although other less-known musical versions exist. The poem bore the subtitle "A magyar nép zivataros századaiból" ("From the rough centuries of the Hungarian people") ; it is often argued that this subtitle – by emphasizing past rather than contemporary national troubles – was added expressly to enable the poem to pass Habsburg censorship. The full meaning of the poem's text is evident only to those well acquainted with Hungarian history.

The words of the Hungarian anthem are unusual in expressing a direct plea to God rather than proclaiming national pride, the norm for the genre. This reference to God meant that during the period of strongest communist rule in Hungary (1949–1956), the anthem was played but the words were never sung. Party Secretary Mátyás Rákosi even asked poet Gyula Illyés and composer Zoltán Kodály, two of the nation's most acclaimed artists at the time, to write a new, communist-themed national anthem. Both, however, refused. Following the collapse of the attempted Revolution of 1956, the new communist leader János Kádár tried unsuccessfully to replace Himnusz with Szózat as the national anthem.


Official Name:
Magyar Koztarsasag
short form: Magyarország
int'l long form: Republic of Hungary
int'l short form: Hungary

ISO Country Code: hu

Capital City: Budapest (est. pop. 2 million)

Other Cities:
Debrecen (220,000); Miskolc (208,000); Szeged (189,000); Pecs (183,000).

Type: Republic.
Constitution: August 20, 1949. Substantially rewritten in 1989, amended in 1990.

Location: Central Europe, northwest of Romania.
Area: 93,030 sq. km. (35,910 sq. mi.)
Terrain: Mostly flat, with low mountains in the north and northeast and north of Lake Balaton.

Climate: Temperate; cold, cloudy, humid winters; warm summers.

Nationality: Hungarian(s).
Population: 10.1 million.
Ethnic groups: Magyar 92%, Romany 4% (est.), German 2%, Slovak 1%, others 1%.
Religions: Roman Catholic 68%, Calvinist 21%, Lutheran 4%, Jewish 1%, others, including Baptist Adventist, Pentecostal, Unitarian 3%.
Languages: Magyar 98%, other 2%.
Literacy: 99%.

Natural resources: Bauxite, coal, natural gas, fertile soils, arable land.

Agriculture products: Wheat, corn, sunflower seed, potatoes, sugar beets; pigs, cattle, poultry, dairy products.

Industries: Mining, metallurgy, construction materials, processed foods, textiles, chemicals (especially pharmaceuticals), motor vehicles.

Exports partners: Germany 34.1%, Austria 8%, Italy 5.8%, France 5.7%, UK 4.5%, Netherlands 4.1% (2003)

Imports partners: Germany 24.5%, Italy 7.1%, China 6.9%, Austria 6.3%, Russia 6.2%, France 4.8%, Japan 4.2% (2003)

Currency: Forint (HUF)

No comments:

Post a Comment