Sunday, May 16, 2010

MEXICO - Country profile




The Flag of Mexico (Spanish : Bandera de México) is a vertical Tricolor of green, white, and red with the national coat of arms charged in the center of the white stripe. While the meaning of the colors has changed over time, these three colors were adopted by Mexico following independence from Spain during the country's War of Independence, and subsequent First Mexican Empire. The current flag was adopted in 1968, but the overall design has been used since 1821, when the First National Flag was created. The current law of national symbols, Law on the National Arms, Flag, and Anthem, that governs the use of the national flag has been in place since 1984.


The National Anthem of Mexico (Spanish : Himno Nacional Mexicano) was officially adopted in 1943. The lyrics of the national anthem, which allude to Mexican victories in the heat of battle and cries of defending the homeland, were composed by poet Francisco González Bocanegra in 1853. In 1854, Jaime Nunó composed the music which now accompanies González's poem. The anthem, consisting of ten stanzas and a chorus, entered into use on September 16, 1854. From 1854 until its official adoption, the lyrics underwent several modifications due to political changes in the country. Unofficially, the anthem is sometimes called "Mexicanos, al grito de guerra" (Spanish for "Mexicans, at the cry of war") which is also the first line of the chorus.


Official Name :
Estados Unidos Mexicanos
short form : México
int'l long form : United Mexican States
int'l short form : Mexico

ISO Country Code : mx

Capital City : México (Distrito Federal; pop. 13 million, 2000 census metro area)

Other Cities :
Guadalajara, Monterrey, Puebla, Ciudad Juarez, Tijuana, Acapulco, Merida, Leon, Veracruz.

Government :
Type: Federal Republic. Independence : First proclaimed 16 September 1810; republic established 1824.
Constitution: 5 February 1917.

Geography :
Location: Middle America, bordering the Caribbean Sea and the Gulf of Mexico, between Belize and the USA and bordering the North Pacific Ocean, between Guatemala and the USA.
Area: 1 972 500 sq. km. (761 600 sq. mi.).
Terrain: Coastal lowlands, central high plateaus, and mountains up to 5 400 m. (18 000 ft.).

Climate : Tropical to desert.

People :
Nationality : Mexican(s).
Population (2004 estimate): 105 million.
Ethnic groups : Indian-Spanish (mestizo) 60%, Amerindian 30%, European 9%, other 1%.
Religions : Roman Catholic 90%, Protestant 5%, other 5%.
Language : Spanish (official); 66 regional indigenous languages.
Literacy : 90%

Natural resources : Petroleum, silver, copper, gold, lead, zinc, natural gas, timber.

Agriculture products : Corn, beans, oilseeds, feed grains, fruit, cotton, coffee, sugarcane, winter vegetables.

Industries : Food and beverages, tobacco, chemicals, iron and steel, petroleum, mining, textiles, clothing, motor vehicles, consumer durables, tourism.

Exports partners : USA 89%, Canada 1.7%, Japan, Spain, Venezuela, Chile, Brazil 2%, Germany 1.2% (2003)

Imports partners : USA 74.8%, China 5.5%, Germany (3.8%); Japan (3.5%); Canada, Italy, South Korea, France (6.2%) (2003)

(Source : Ministry of Foreign Affairs - Mexico and others)

Currency : Mexican Peso (M$) (MXN)

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