Tuesday, May 25, 2010

ROMANIA - Country profile




The national flag of Romania (Romanian : Drapelul României) is a tricolour with vertical stripes : beginning from the flagpole, blue, yellow and red. It has a width-length ratio of 2:3.

The Constitution of Romania provides that “The flag of Romania is tricolour ; the colors are arranged vertically in the following order from the flagpole : blue, yellow, red”. The proportions, shades of color as well as the flag protocol were established by law in 1994 and extended in 2001.


"Deşteaptă-te, române" (variously translated as "Awaken thee, Romanian!", "Awaken, Romanian!", or "Wake Up, Romanian!") is Romania's national anthem.

The lyrics were composed by Andrei Mureşanu (1816-1863) and the music was popular (it was chosen for the poem by Gheorghe Ucenescu, as most sources say). It was written and published during the 1848 revolution, initially with the name "Un răsunet" ("An echo"). It was first sung in late June in the same year in the city of Braşov, on the streets of Şchei quarter. It was immediately accepted as the revolutionary anthem and renamed "Deşteaptă-te, române".

Since then, this song, which contains a message of liberty and patriotism, has been sung during all major Romanian conflicts, including during the 1989 anti-Communist revolution. After that revolution, it became the national anthem, replacing the communist-era national anthem "Trei culori" ("Three colors").

July 29 is now "National Anthem Day" (Ziua Imnului naţional), an annual observance in Romania.

The first country to adopt this song as a national anthem was the Moldavian Democratic Republic, during its brief existence, between 1917 and 1918.

This song was also the national anthem of Moldova for a few years, but was replaced in 1994 by the current Moldovan anthem, "Limba noastră" ("Our language").


Official Name: Romania

ISO Country Code: ro

Capital City: Bucuresti (Bucharest; pop. 2 million)

Other Cities: Iasi (350 000), Constanta (344 000), Timisoara (327 000), Cluj-Napoca (334 000), Galati (331 000), Brasov (316 000)

Type: Republic.
Constitution: 8 December 1991, amended by referendum October 2003.

Location: Southeastern Europe, bordering the Black Sea, between Bulgaria and Ukraine.
Area: 237 499 sq. km. (91 699 sq. mi.).
Terrain: Consists mainly of rolling, fertile plains; hilly in the eastern regions of the middle Danube basin; and major mountain ranges running north and west in the center of the country, which collectively are known as the Carpathians.

Climate: Temperate-continental, four seasons, cold winters with frequent snow; sunny summers.

Nationality: Romanian(s).
Population: 21.7 million.
Ethnic groups: Romanians 89.5%; Hungarians (including Szecklers) 6.5%; Roma 2.5%; other ethnic groups -1.5% .
Religions: Eastern Orthodox - 86.7%; Roman-Catholic-4.7%; Protestant - 3.2%; Greek-Catholic - 0.9%, Evangelical - 0.1%; Unitarian - 0.3%; other religions - 0.4%.
Languages: Romanian (official), Hungarian, German.
Literacy: 98%.

Natural resources: Petroleum (reserves declining), timber, natural gas, coal, iron ore, salt, arable land, hydropower.

Agriculture products: Wheat, corn, barley, sugar beets, sunflower seed, potatoes, grapes; eggs, sheep.

Industries: Textiles and footwear, light machinery and auto assembly, mining, timber, construction materials, metallurgy, chemicals, food processing, petroleum refining.

Exports partners: Italy 19.4%, Germany 14%, Turkey 7.9%, France 7.4%, UK 5.5%, Hungary 4.1%, USA 4.1% (2005)

Imports partners: Italy 15.5%, Germany 14%, Russia 8.3%, France 6.8%, Turkey 4.9%, China 4.1% (2005)

Currency: Leu (RON)

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