of South America. Venezuela borders Brazil to the south,
Guyana to the east, and Colombia to the west.
North of the Venezuelan coast lie the islands of Aruba, the Netherlands Antilles,
and Trinidad and Tobago. A former Spanish colony, Venezuela is a federal republic. Historically, Venezuela has had territorial disputes with Guyana,
largely concerning the Essequibo area, and with Colombia concerning the Gulf of Venezuela. Today, Venezuela is known widely for its petroleum industry,
the environmental diversity of its territory, and its sheer natural beauty.
Christopher Columbus was so enthralled by Venezuela's landscape,
when arriving to its coast in 1498,
that he referred to the land as Tierra de Gracia (Land of Grace),
which has become the country’s nickname.
Flag of VENEZUELA :
National anthem of VENEZUELA :
Gloria al Bravo Pueblo (Glory to the Brave People) was adopted as Venezuela's national anthem by President Antonio Guzmán Blanco on May 25, 1881. The lyrics were written by the medician and journalist Vicente Salias in 1810. The music was later composed by musician Juan José Landaeta. It is said, however, that the melody was known since 1840 as La Marsellesa Venezolana (Venezuelan Marseillaise), in reference to its subtle similarity to the French national anthem.
Land : 882 050 sq km
Elevation extremes :
Andes Mountains and Maracaibo Lowlands in northwest; central plains (llanos); Guiana Highlands in southeast.
Natural resources :
Petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, gold, bauxite, other minerals, hydropower, diamonds.
Current weather : tropical, hot, humid, more moderate in highlands.
27,223,228 (2010 est.)
Demonym : Venezuelan
Ethnic groups :
Spanish, Italian, Portuguese, Arab, German, African, indigenous people.
Nominally Roman Catholic 96%, Protestant 2%, other 2%.
Official : Spanish
National : Spanish
Numerous indigenous dialects
ISO country code :
Government type :
Caracas (population Distrito Capital : 2 097 350 in 2009 ; Distrito Metropolitano was estimated at 3 196 514 in 2008).
Other major cities :
Maracaibo, Valencia, Barquisimeto.
Administrative divisions :
From Spain : 5 July 1811
From Gran Colombia : 13 January 1830
Recognized : 30 marc 1845
National holiday :
Independence Day, 5 July (1811)
30 December 1999
Executive branch :
Executive Vice President : Elias JAUA Milano (since 26 January 2010) ;
Note : the president is both the chief of state and head of government
Executive Vice President : Elias JAUA Milano (since 26 January 2010)
Legislative branch :
Judicial branch :
Supreme Tribunal of Justice or Tribuna Suprema de Justicia (32 magistrates are elected by the National Assembly for a single 12-year term).
Bolivar fuerte (VEB)
Agriculture products :
Corn, sorghum, sugarcane, rice, bananas, vegetables, coffee, beef, pork, milk, eggs, fish.
Petroleum, construction materials, food processing, textiles, iron ore mining, steel, aluminum, motor vehicle assembly.
Exports partners :
US 39.8%, Netherlands Antilles 7.6%, China 4.6% (2008).
Imports partners :
US 26.1%, Colombia 12.6%, Brazil 10.7%, China 6.9%, Mexico 4.8% (2008).