Colombia's history began well over 13,000 years ago,
as evidence of human occupation dates to that era.
Over time, many Andean and Caribbean cultures inhabited the area,
including the Tayrona, Sinú, Muisca, Quimbaya, Tolima, Calima,
Tierradentro, San Agustín, Nariño and Tumaco peoples.
The Spanish arrived along the coastal areas of Colombia in the early 1500s
and the country became Spain's chief source of gold ;
Cartagena and Bogota were founded by mid-century.
Spain eventually increased taxation of the colonists
to fund their home-front war expenses,
and the subsequent anger and uprising
that occurred were the seeds of the revolution to come.
In 1819, Simon Bolivar (a national hero) and his armies defeated the Spanish,
and the independent Republic of Gran was formed ;
it included Colombia, Ecuador, Panama and Venezuela.
By the early 20th century,
all of the original partners had withdrawn from the association, and in 1905,
Colombia was finally on its own.
Since then it has survived a hurricane of political assassinations,
internal governmental conflicts, guerrilla activities and drug wars.
After all of that it remains one of the most attractive
and mysterious countries on the South American continent.
Political and internal unrest, has for the most part,
limited tourism to the Caribbean coastal resorts and towns,
with special emphasis on Cartagena.
International business travel is commonplace (to and from)
the country's major cities.
Flag of COLOMBIA
The current flag of Colombia was officially adopted on December 17, 1819.
The flag features three horizontal bands of yellow (double-width), blue and red. Colors of the flag are commonly interpreted in two ways :
One version indicates that the yellow symbolizes sovereignty and justice, blue as loyalty and vigilance, and red represents the valor shown and the victory achieved during the battles for independence from Spain.
A very popular children's song claims that yellow represents the gold Colombia once owned until the arrival of the Spanish, blue indicates the country's contact with two oceans and red represents the blood that Colombians spent in their struggle for independence from Spain.
National Anthem of COLOMBIA :
Himno Nacional de la República de Colombia (National Anthem of the Republic of Colombia) is the official name of the national anthem of Colombia.
The official announcement came in the form of Act 33 of October 28 of 1920. The law 198 of 1995, which legislates national symbols, its distribution became mandatory in all radio and television in the country both at 6:00 am as at 18:00 h (the latter half, at various times for private open signal and not applicable to national TV channels by cable), and public intervention in the President of the Republic and other official events.
|Spanish lyrics||English translation|
|¡Oh gloria inmarcesible! |
¡Oh júbilo inmortal!
O unfading glory!
|Cesó la horrible noche, |
la libertad sublime
The horrible night has ceased,
|"¡Independencia!" grita |
el mundo americano;
|Del Orinoco el cauce |
se colma de despojos,
The Orinoco's bed
|A orillas del Caribe, |
hambriento un pueblo lucha,
On the shores of the Caribbean,
|De Boyacá en los campos, |
el genio de la gloria,
From Boyacá in the fields,
|Bolívar cruza el Andes |
que riegan dos océanos,
Bolivar crosses the Andes
|La trompa victoriosa |
en Ayacucho truena,
The victorious trumpet
|La virgen sus cabellos |
arranca en agonía
The virgin her hairs
|La patria así se forma, |
Thus the motherland is formed,
|Mas no es completa gloria |
vencer en la batalla,
But it's not complete glory
|Del hombre los derechos |
From men the rights
Land : 1 109 104 sq km
3,208 km (Caribbean Sea 1,760 km, North Pacific Ocean 1,448 km)
Elevation extremes :
Flat coastal lowlands, central highlands, high Andes Mountains, eastern lowland plains.
Petroleum, natural gas, coal, iron ore, nickel, gold, copper, emeralds, hydropower.
Current weather : tropical along coast and eastern plains, cooler in highlands.
44 205 293 (Estimation 2010)
Demonym : Colombian
Ethnic groups :
Country name :
ISO country code :
Government type :
Republic. Executive branch dominates government structure.
Bogotá (population of the city : 7 332 788 - 2010 census ; colombian largest city)
Other major cities :
Medellín, Cali, Barranquilla, Cartagena.
Administrative divisions :
20 July 1810 (from Spain).
National holiday :
Independence Day, 20 July.
Executive branch :
Note : the president is both the chief of state and head of government.
Legislative branch :
Judicial branch :
Colombian Peso (COP)
Agriculture products :
Exports partners :
US 38%, Venezuela 16.2%, Ecuador 4% (2008).
Imports partners :
US 29.2%, China 11.5%, Mexico 7.9%, Brazil 5.9% (2008).