(Indonesian: Republik Indonesia),
is a nation of islands that consists of 18 110 islands
in the South East Asian Archipelago.
The capital is Jakarta, formerly known as Batavia.
Indonesia (from Greek : indus = India nesos = islands)
is the world's largest archipelagic nation, and it is bordered
by the nations of Papua New Guinea, Timor Leste, and Malaysia.
With a population of over 200 million,
it is the world's fourth most populous country
and most populous Muslim-majority nation.
The region was an important trade route to China, thriving in trade of spices.
Regional Hindu kingdoms expanded religious
and cultural influences of Hinduism as well as Buddhism, and in the Middle Ages,
the islands came under the influence of Islam.
The region was colonized by the Netherlands as the Dutch East Indies.
The people across many islands rebelled in the early 20th century
against Dutch control.
After a brief occupation by Imperial Japan during World War II,
nationalists declared independence in 1945,
and a united and independent Indonesia was recognized in 1949.
It was also recognized by the United Nations in 1950.
Indonesia is a unitary state, and for most of its post-independence history,
was first governed by Sukarno, leader of the national independence struggle,
and then under controversial and authoritarian Suharto.
Democracy was restored following the revolution of 1998.
Although the national language is Indonesian
and the population is overwhelmingly Muslim,
there are several hundred diverse linguistic and ethnic groups across the country,
as well as other religious communities.
Although Indonesia's economy is progressive and regionally important,
internal problems and political instability hinder national development.
Flag of INDONESIA :
The national flag of Indonesia, which is known as Sang Saka Merah Putih ("The Red and White") in Indonesian, is based on the flag of the 13th century Majapahit kingdom in East Java. The flag itself was introduced and hoisted in public at the Indonesian Independence Day ceremony, on 17 August 1945. The design of the flag has remained the same ever since.
The design of the flag is simple with two equal horizontal bands, red (top) and white (bottom) with an overall ratio of 2:3. The flag is similar to the flag of Poland and flag of Singapore. The flag is identical to the flag of Hesse (a German state) and flag of Monaco (except for the ratio). Red represents courage, while white represents purity of intent.National Anthem of INDONESIA :
Indonesia Raya is the national anthem of the Republic of Indonesia. The song was introduced by its composer, Wage Rudolf Supratman, on 28 October 1928 during the Second Indonesian Youth Congress in Batavia. The song marked the birth of the all-archipelago nationalist movement in Indonesia that supported the idea of one single "Indonesia" as successor to the Dutch East Indies, rather than split into several colonies.
The first stanza of Indonesia Raya was chosen as the national anthem when Indonesia proclaimed its independence at 17 August 1945.
Indonesia Raya is played in flag raising ceremonies. The flag is raised in a solemn and timed motion so that it reaches the top of the flagpole as the anthem ends. The main flag raising ceremony is held annually on 17 August to commemorate Independence day. The ceremony is led by the President of Indonesia.
|Indonesian lyrics||Approximate translation|
|First stanza |
(Indonesian National Anthem)
Indonesia, tanah airku
Hiduplah tanahku, hiduplah negeriku
Indonesia, my native land
Long live my land, long live my state
Indonesia, tanah yang mulia
Suburlah tanahnya, suburlah jiwanya
Indonesia, a noble land
Fertile may its soil, flourish may its soul
Indonesia, tanah yang suci
S'lamatlah rakyatnya, s'lamatlah putranya
Indonesia, a sacred land
Safe may its people, safe may its children
Land : 1 811 569 sq km
54 716 km
Elevation extremes :
Mostly coastal lowlands; larger islands have interior mountains.
Petroleum, tin, natural gas, nickel, timber, bauxite, copper, fertile soils, coal, gold, silver.
Current weather : tropical , hot, humid, more moderate in highlands.
242 968 342 (Estimation 2010)
Demonym : Indonesian
Ethnic groups :
Bahasa Indonesia (official, modified form of Malay)
English, Dutch, local dialects (the most widely spoken of which is Javanese).
Country name :
Former : Netherlands East Indies, Dutch East Indies
ISO country code :
Government type :
Jakarta (population : 8 792 000 - 2008 ; indonesian largest city)
Other major cities :
Surabaya, Medan, Bandung.
Administrative divisions :
27 December 1949 (by the Netherlands).
National holiday :
Independence Day, 17 August.
Executive branch :
Note : the president is both the chief of state and head of government.
Legislative branch :
Judicial branch :
Indonesian Rupiah (IDR)
Agriculture products :
Exports partners :
Japan 20.2%, US 9.5%, Singapore 9.4%, China 8.5%, South Korea 6.7%, India 5.2%, Malaysia 4.7% (2008).
Imports partners :