The defeat of the Russian Empire in World War I led to the seizure of power by the communists and the formation of the USSR. The brutal rule of Josef STALIN (1924-53) strengthened Russian dominance of the Soviet Union at a cost of tens of millions of lives. The Soviet economy and society stagnated in the following decades until General Secretary Mikhail GORBACHEV (1985-91) introduced glasnost (openness) and perestroika (restructuring) in an attempt to modernize communism, but his initiatives inadvertently released forces that by December 1991 splintered the USSR into 15 independent republics. Since then, Russia has struggled in its efforts to build a democratic political system and market economy to replace the strict social, political, and economic controls
of the communist period.
Flag of RUSSIA
National Anthem of RUSSIA :
"Gosudarstvenny Gimn Rossiyskoy Federatsii" (Russian: Государственный гимн Российской Федерации) is the national anthem of Russia. The song is an adaptation of the anthem of the Soviet Union that was used from 1944 until 1990, with music originally composed by Alexander Alexandrov. The lyrics were revised for the anthem of the Russian Federation by Sergey Mikhalkov, who also wrote lyrics for versions of the Soviet anthem in 1943 and 1977.
In 1990, Russia needed a new anthem to distance itself from the Soviet past. Although "God Save The Tsar!" was used before the overthrow of the Tsar in 1917, President of the Russian SFSR, Boris Yeltsin, decided to select the song "Patrioticheskaya pesnya" by Mikhail Glinka. Composed without words and discovered after Glinka's death, the anthem, without lyrics, was decreed official in 1993. Due to the lack of lyrics, the anthem was not popular. In addition, it did not inspire some Russian athletes during international competitions. A few contests were then sponsored by the government to include lyrics in the anthem, however none were adopted. Because of this, President Vladimir Putin decided that Alexandrov's music was to be restored, and that new lyrics should be written for it. The anthem was created and adopted in late 2000, and became the second anthem used by Russia since the collapse of the Soviet Union.
Россия — священная наша держава,
Россия — любимая наша страна.
Могучая воля, великая слава —
Твоё достоянье на все времена!
Славься, Отечество наше свободное,
Братских народов союз вековой,
Предками данная мудрость народная!
Славься, страна! Мы гордимся тобой!
От южных морей до полярного края
Раскинулись наши леса и поля.
Одна ты на свете! Одна ты такая —
Хранимая Богом родная земля!
Широкий простор для мечты и для жизни
Грядущие нам открывают года.
Нам силу даёт наша верность Отчизне.
Так было, так есть и так будет всегда!
Russia — our holy nation,
Russia — our beloved country.
A mighty will, great glory —
These are yours for all time !
Be glorious, our free Fatherland,
Age-old union of fraternal peoples,
Popular wisdom given by our forebears !
Be glorious, our country! We are proud of you !
From the southern seas to the polar lands
Spread our forests and fields.
You are unique in the world, one of a kind —
Native land protected by God !
Wide spaces for dreams and for living
Are opened for us by the coming years
Our loyalty to our Fatherland gives us strength.
Thus it was, thus it is and always will be !
Land : 16 377 742 sq km
Elevation extremes :
Ranges from steppes in the south through humid continental in much of European Russia ; subarctic in Siberia to tundra climate in the polar north; winters vary from cool along Black Sea coast to frigid in Siberia; summers vary from warm in the steppes to cool along Arctic coast.
Wide natural resource base including major deposits of oil, natural gas, coal, and many strategic minerals, timber.
Current weather : ranges from steppes in the south through humid continental in much of European Russia; subarctic in Siberia to tundra climate in the polar north; winters vary from cool along Black Sea coast to frigid in Siberia; summers vary from warm in the steppes to cool along Arctic.
139 390 205 (Estimation 2010)
Demonym : Russian
Ethnic groups :
Russian 79.8%, Tatar 3.8%, Ukrainian 2%, Bashkir 1.2%, Chuvash 1.1%, other or unspecified 12.1% (2002 census).
Country name :
ISO country code :
Government type :
Moscow (population : 10 562 099 - estimation 2010)
Other major cities :
St. Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Nizhniy Novgorod.
Administrative divisions :
24 August 1991 (from the Soviet Union).
National holiday :
Russia Day, 12 June (1990)
Executive branch :
Legislative branch :
Judicial branch :
Constitutional Court ; Supreme Court ; Supreme Arbitration Court ; judges for all courts are appointed for life by the Federation Council on the recommendation of the president.
Russian Ruble (RUR)
Agriculture products :
Grain, sugar beets, sunflower seed, vegetables, fruits, beef, milk.
Exports partners :
Netherlands 12.2%, Italy 9%, Germany 6.9%, Turkey 5.9%, Ukraine 5%, China 4.5%, Poland 4.3% (2008).
Imports partners :
China 12.9%, Germany 12.6%, Japan 6.9%, Ukraine 6%, US 5.1%, Italy 4.1% (2008).