Saturday, June 26, 2010

INDONESIA - Country profile

Indonesia, officially the Republic of Indonesia
(Indonesian: Republik Indonesia),
is a nation of islands that consists of 18 110 islands
in the South East Asian Archipelago.

The capital is Jakarta, formerly known as Batavia.
Indonesia (from Greek : indus = India nesos = islands)
is the world's largest archipelagic nation, and it is bordered
by the nations of Papua New Guinea, Timor Leste, and Malaysia.
With a population of over 200 million,
it is the world's fourth most populous country
and most populous Muslim-majority nation.

The region was an important trade route to China, thriving in trade of spices.
Regional Hindu kingdoms expanded religious
and cultural influences of Hinduism as well as Buddhism, and in the Middle Ages,
the islands came under the influence of Islam.
The region was colonized by the Netherlands as the Dutch East Indies.
The people across many islands rebelled in the early 20th century
against Dutch control.
After a brief occupation by Imperial Japan during World War II,
nationalists declared independence in 1945,
and a united and independent Indonesia was recognized in 1949.
It was also recognized by the United Nations in 1950.
Indonesia is a unitary state, and for most of its post-independence history,
was first governed by Sukarno, leader of the national independence struggle,
and then under controversial and authoritarian Suharto.
Democracy was restored following the revolution of 1998.

Although the national language is Indonesian
and the population is overwhelmingly Muslim,
there are several hundred diverse linguistic and ethnic groups across the country,
as well as other religious communities.
Although Indonesia's economy is progressive and regionally important,
internal problems and political instability hinder national development.

Flag of

The national flag of Indonesia, which is known as Sang Saka Merah Putih ("The Red and White") in Indonesian, is based on the flag of the 13th century Majapahit kingdom in East Java. The flag itself was introduced and hoisted in public at the Indonesian Independence Day ceremony, on 17 August 1945. The design of the flag has remained the same ever since.

The design of the flag is simple with two equal horizontal bands, red (top) and white (bottom) with an overall ratio of 2:3. The flag is similar to the flag of Poland and flag of Singapore. The flag is identical to the flag of Hesse (a German state) and flag of Monaco (except for the ratio). Red represents courage, while white represents purity of intent.

National Anthem of INDONESIA :

Indonesia Raya is the national anthem of the Republic of Indonesia. The song was introduced by its composer, Wage Rudolf Supratman, on 28 October 1928 during the Second Indonesian Youth Congress in Batavia. The song marked the birth of the all-archipelago nationalist movement in Indonesia that supported the idea of one single "Indonesia" as successor to the Dutch East Indies, rather than split into several colonies.

The first stanza of Indonesia Raya was chosen as the national anthem when Indonesia proclaimed its independence at 17 August 1945.

Indonesia Raya is played in flag raising ceremonies. The flag is raised in a solemn and timed motion so that it reaches the top of the flagpole as the anthem ends. The main flag raising ceremony is held annually on 17 August to commemorate Independence day. The ceremony is led by the President of Indonesia.

Indonesia Raya
Indonesian lyrics Approximate translation
First stanza
(Indonesian National Anthem)

Indonesia, tanah airku
Tanah tumpah darahku
Di sanalah aku berdiri
Jadi pandu ibuku

Indonesia, kebangsaanku
Bangsa dan tanah airku
Marilah kita berseru
"Indonesia bersatu!"

Hiduplah tanahku, hiduplah negeriku
Bangsaku, rakyatku, semuanya
Bangunlah jiwanya, bangunlah badannya
Untuk Indonesia Raya

Indonesia Raya, merdeka, merdeka!
Tanahku, negeriku yang kucinta
Indonesia Raya, merdeka, merdeka!
Hiduplah Indonesia Raya!
Indonesia Raya, merdeka, merdeka!
Tanahku, negeriku yang kucinta
Indonesia Raya, merdeka, merdeka!
Hiduplah Indonesia Raya

Indonesia, my native land
The land where I shed my blood
Right there, I stand
To be the scout of my motherland

Indonesia, my nationality
My nation and my homeland
Let us exclaim
"Indonesia unites!"

Long live my land, long live my state
My nation, my people, entirely
Build its soul, build its body
For the Great Indonesia

Great Indonesia, independent & sovereign!
My land, my country which I love
Great Indonesia, independent & sovereign!
Long live Great Indonesia!
Great Indonesia, independent & sovereign!
My land, my country which I love
Great Indonesia, independent & sovereign!
Long live Great Indonesia!
Second stanza

Indonesia, tanah yang mulia
Tanah kita yang kaya
Di sanalah aku berdiri
Untuk s'lama-lamanya

Indonesia, tanah pusaka
P'saka kita semuanya
Marilah kita mendoa
"Indonesia bahagia!"

Suburlah tanahnya, suburlah jiwanya
Bangsanya, rakyatnya, semuanya
Sadarlah hatinya, sadarlah budinya
Untuk Indonesia Raya


Indonesia, a noble land
Our wealthy land
Right there, I stand
Forever and ever

Indonesia, a hereditary land
A heritage of ours
Let us pray
"For Indonesians' happiness!"

Fertile may its soil, flourish may its soul
Its nation, its people, entirely
Aware may its heart, aware may its mind
For the Great Indonesia

Third stanza

Indonesia, tanah yang suci
Tanah kita yang sakti
Di sanalah aku berdiri
N'jaga ibu sejati

Indonesia, tanah berseri
Tanah yang aku sayangi
Marilah kita berjanji
"Indonesia abadi!"

S'lamatlah rakyatnya, s'lamatlah putranya
Pulaunya, lautnya, semuanya
Majulah Neg'rinya, majulah pandunya
Untuk Indonesia Raya


Indonesia, a sacred land
Our victorious land
Right there, I stand
To guard the pure motherland

Indonesia, a radiant land
A land which I adore
Let us pledge
"Indonesia is eternal!"

Safe may its people, safe may its children
Its islands, its seas, entirely
The state progresses, its scouts advance
For the Great Indonesia


Location :

Southeastern Asia, archipelago between the Indian Ocean and the Pacific Ocean.

Maps :

Area :

Total : 1 904 569 sq km
Land : 1 811 569 sq km
Water : 93 000 sq km

Coastline :

54 716 km

Elevation extremes :

Lowest point : Indian Ocean 0 m
Highest point : Puncak Jaya 5 030 m

Terrain :

Mostly coastal lowlands; larger islands have interior mountains.

Natural resources :

Petroleum, tin, natural gas, nickel, timber, bauxite, copper, fertile soils, coal, gold, silver.

Climate :

Current weather : tropical , hot, humid, more moderate in highlands.

Population :

242 968 342 (Estimation 2010)

Nationality :

Demonym : Indonesian

Ethnic groups :

Javanese 40.6%, Sundanese 15%, Madurese 3.3%, Minangkabau 2.7%, Betawi 2.4%, Bugis 2.4%, Banten 2%, Banjar 1.7%, other or unspecified 29.9% (2000 census).

Religions :

Muslim 86.1%, Protestant 5.7%, Roman Catholic 3%, Hindu 1.8%, other or unspecified 3.4% (2000 census).

Languages :

Bahasa Indonesia (official, modified form of Malay)
English, Dutch, local dialects (the most widely spoken of which is Javanese)

Country name :

Conventional long form : Republic of Indonesia
Conventional short form : Indonesia
Local long form : Republik Indonesia
Local short form : Indonesia
Former : Netherlands East Indies, Dutch East Indies

ISO country code :


Government type :


Capital :

Jakarta (population : 8 792 000 - 2008 ; indonesian largest city)

Other major cities :

Surabaya, Medan, Bandung.

Administrative divisions :

30 provinces (provinsi-provinsi, singular - provinsi), 2 special regions* (daerah-daerah istimewa, singular - daerah istimewa), and 1 special capital city district** (daerah khusus ibukota) ; Aceh*, Bali, Banten, Bengkulu, Gorontalo, Jakarta Raya**, Jambi, Jawa Barat, Jawa Tengah, Jawa Timur, Kalimantan Barat, Kalimantan Selatan, Kalimantan Tengah, Kalimantan Timur, Kepulauan Bangka Belitung, Kepulauan Riau, Lampung, Maluku, Maluku Utara, Nusa Tenggara Barat, Nusa Tenggara Timur, Papua, Papua Barat, Riau, Sulawesi Barat, Sulawesi Selatan, Sulawesi Tengah, Sulawesi Tenggara, Sulawesi Utara, Sumatera Barat, Sumatera Selatan, Sumatera Utara, Yogyakarta*.

Note : following the implementation of decentralization beginning on 1 January 2001, regencies and municipalities have become the key administrative units responsible for providing most government services.

Independance :

17 August 1945 (declared).
27 December 1949 (by the Netherlands).
Note : in August 2005 the Netherlands announced that it had recognized de facto Indonesian independence on 17 August 1945.

National holiday :

Independence Day, 17 August.

Constitution :

August 1945 ; abrogated by Federal Constitution of 1949 and Provisional Constitution of 1950, restored 5 July 1959 ; series of amendments concluded in 2002.

Executive branch :

Chief of state : President Susilo Bambang YUDHOYONO (since 20 October 2004) ; Vice President BOEDIONO (since 20 October 2009).
Note : the president is both the chief of state and head of government.

Head of government : President Susilo Bambang YUDHOYONO (since 20 October 2004) ; Vice President BOEDIONO (since 20 October 2009).

Cabinet : Cabinet appointed by the president.

Elections : president and vice president elected for five-year terms (eligible for a second term) by direct vote of the citizenry ; election last held on 8 July 2009 (next to be held in 2014).

Election results : Susilo Bambang YUDHOYONO elected president ; percent of vote - Susilo Bambang YUDHOYONO 60.8%, MEGAWATI Sukarnoputri 26.8%, Jusuf KALLA 12.4%.

Legislative branch :

People's Consultative Assembly (Majelis Permusyawaratan Rakyat or MPR) is the upper house ; it consists of members of the DPR and DPD and has role in inaugurating and impeaching the president and in amending the constitution but does not formulate national policy ; House of Representatives or Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat (DPR) (560 seats, members elected to serve five-year terms), formulates and passes legislation at the national level ; House of Regional Representatives (Dewan Perwakilan Daerah or DPD), constitutionally mandated role includes providing legislative input to DPR on issues affecting regions (132 members, four from each of Indonesia's 30 provinces, two special regions, and one special capital city district).

Judicial branch :

Supreme Court or Mahkamah Agung is the final court of appeal but does not have the power of judicial review (justices are appointed by the president from a list of candidates selected by the legislature) ; in March 2004 the Supreme Court assumed administrative and financial responsibility for the lower court system from the Ministry of Justice and Human Rights ; Constitutional Court or Mahkamah Konstitusi (invested by the president on 16 August 2003) has the power of judicial review, jurisdiction over the results of a general election, and reviews actions to dismiss a president from office ; Labor Court under supervision of Supreme Court began functioning in January 2006 ; the Anti-Corruption Court has jurisdiction over corruption cases brought by the independent Corruption Eradication Commission.

Currency :

Indonesian Rupiah (IDR)

Agriculture products :

Rice, cassava (tapioca), peanuts, rubber, cocoa, coffee, palm oil, copra, poultry, beef, pork, eggs.

Industries :

Petroleum and natural gas, textiles, apparel, footwear, mining, cement, chemical fertilizers, plywood, rubber, food, tourism.

Exports partners :

Japan 20.2%, US 9.5%, Singapore 9.4%, China 8.5%, South Korea 6.7%, India 5.2%, Malaysia 4.7% (2008).

Imports partners :

Singapore 16.9%, China 11.8%, Japan 11.7%, Malaysia 6.9%, US 6.1%, South Korea 5.4%, Thailand 4.9% (2008).

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