Although explored by the Spanish early in the 16th century,
initial attempts at colonizing Costa Rica proved unsuccessful
due to a combination of factors, including :
disease from mosquito-infested swamps, brutal heat, resistance by natives,
and pirate raids.
It was not until 1563 that a permanent settlement of Cartago
was established in the cooler, fertile central highlands.
The area remained a colony for some two and a half centuries.
In 1821, Costa Rica became one of several Central American provinces
that jointly declared their independence from Spain.
Two years later it joined the United Provinces of Central America,
but this federation disintegrated in 1838,
at which time Costa Rica proclaimed its sovereignty and independence.
Since the late 19th century,
only two brief periods of violence have marred the country's democratic development. Although it still maintains a large agricultural sector,
Costa Rica has expanded its economy
to include strong technology and tourism industries.
Flag of COSTA RICA :
The flag of Costa Rica was officially adopted on November 27, 1906. However, the blue, white and red horizontal design was created and used since 1848 when Costa Rica left the Federal Republic of Central America and declared itself a Sovereign Republic. Pacífica Fernández, wife of the president, José María Castro Madriz created it inspired on the colors of the French Flag. The state flag and ensign includes the coat of arms of Costa Rica, while the civil ensign (there is no civil flag) omits the coat of arms.
The blue color stands for the sky, opportunities, idealism and perseverance. The white color stands for peace, wisdom and happiness. The red color stands for the blood spilt by martyrs in defense of the country, as well as the warmth and generosity of the people.
The flag of Costa Rica is similar to the flag of Thailand, which was adopted 11 years later. It also resembles the flag of North Korea.
Red, white, and blue recall the colors of the French Tricolore. Blue and white were the colors of the original flag of the United Provinces of Central America.
The Central American flag remained in use in Costa Rica until 1848 when, in response to events in France, it was decided to incorporate the French colors into the national flag. This was done by adding a central red stripe. The coat of arms was also revised and placed in the center of the flag. In 1906, it was placed in a white disk on the red stripe, and later on an oval, set toward the hoist.
The coat of arms depicts the isthmus between the Pacific ocean and the Caribbean Sea, with 3 volcanoes. The 7 stars stand for the 7 provinces of Costa Rica. The Spanish name of the country is scrolled on a white banner, Republica de Costa Rica (Republic of Costa Rica), and the Central American union is recognized in the blue upper scroll, America Central, recalling the former United Provinces of Central America.
National Anthem COSTA RICA :
"Himno Nacional de Costa Rica" is the national anthem of Costa Rica. It was originally adopted in 1853, with the music composed by Manuel María Gutiérrez. Words by José María Zeledón Brenes were added in 1900.
expresión de tu vida nos da ;
bajo el límpido azul de tu cielo
blanca y pura descansa la paz.
En la lucha tenaz,
de fecunda labor
que enrojece del hombre la faz,
conquistaron tus hijos
eterno prestigio, estima y honor.
¡Salve, o tierra gentil !
¡Salve, o madre de amor !
Cuando alguno pretenda
tu gloria manchar,
verás a tu pueblo valiente y viril,
la tosca herramienta en arma trocar.
Salve oh Patria tu pródigo suelo,
dulce abrigo y sustento nos da ;
bajo el límpido azul de tu cielo
¡vivan siempre el trabajo y la paz !
Land : 51 060 sq km
Note : includes Isla del Coco.
1 290 km
Elevation extremes :
Current weather : tropical and subtropical; dry season (December to April) ; rainy season (May to November) ; cooler in highlands.
4 516 220 (Estimation 2010)
Demonym : Costa Rican, Tico
Ethnic groups :
Spanish (official), English.
Country name :
ISO country code :
Government type :
San Jose (population : 350 535 - 2007 ; costa rican largest city)
Other major cities :
Administrative divisions :
15 September 1821 (from Spain)
4 October 1824 (from Mexico)
21 march 1847 (from UPCA)
10 May 1850 : recognized by Spain
National holiday :
Independence Day, 15 September.
Executive branch :
Note : the president is both the chief of state and head of government.
Legislative branch :
Judicial branch :
Costa Rican colón (CRC)
Agriculture products :
Exports partners :
US 23.9%, Netherlands 13.3%, China 13%, UK 5%, Mexico 4.9% (2008).
Imports partners :