Wednesday, June 2, 2010

CROATIA - Country profile

The lands that today comprise Croatia were part
of the Austro-Hungarian Empire until the close of World War I.
In 1918, the Croats, Serbs, and Slovenes formed a kingdom
known after 1929 as Yugoslavia. Following World War II,
Yugoslavia became a federal independent Communist state
under the strong hand of Marshal TITO.

Croatia's declaration of independence in 1991 was followed by four years of war
and the best part of a decade of authoritarian nationalism.

By early 2003 it had made enough progress
in shaking off the legacy of those years to apply for EU membership,
becoming the second former Yugoslav republic after Slovenia to do so.

A country of striking natural beauty with a stunning Adriatic coastline,
Croatia is again very popular as a tourist destination.

Flag of CROATIA :

The Croatian flag consists of three equal size, horizontal stripes in the pan-Slavic colours red, white and blue. In the middle is the Coat of Arms of Croatia.

The red-white-blue tricolour has been used as the Croatian flag since 1848, symbolising the Pan-Slavic colours. While the Banovina of Croatia existed within the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, it had a similar flag without the modern crown above the chequy. While Croatia was part of SFR Yugoslavia its tricolour was the same, but it had a five-pointed red star with a yellow border in place of the coat of arms. The star was replaced by the coat in May 1990, shortly after the first multi-party elections. The current flag and the coat of arms were officially adopted on December 21, 1990, about ten months before the proclamation of independence from Yugoslavia and a day before the Constitution of Croatia on 22 December 1990. The shield is in the red and white checks of Croatia. Above is a crown made of shields of its various regions. From left to right they are the ancient arms of Croatia, Dubrovnik, Dalmatia, Istria, and Slavonia.

National Anthem of CROATIA :

"Lijepa naša domovino" ("Our Beautiful Homeland") is the national anthem of Croatia. Its opening words, "Lijepa naša" ("Our Beautiful"), are widely used as a metonym for Croatia.

The original lyrics were written by Antun Mihanović and first published under the title "Horvatska domovina" ("Croatian homeland") in 1835. The music was composed by Josip Runjanin in 1846.

The complete song was reportedly scored and harmonized by Vatroslav Lichtenegger in 1861, and it was first performed as the Croatian anthem in the same year, under the title "Lijepa naša". The original anthem has 15 verses. Since then it has come to be known under the slightly longer present title and a few minor adjustments have been made to the lyrics.

Between 1918 and 1941, segments of the Croatian national anthem were part of the National Anthem of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia.

Lyrics :

Croatian Official English translation
Lijepa naša domovino,
Oj junačka zemljo mila,
Stare slave djedovino,
Da bi vazda sretna bila!
Mila, kano si nam slavna,
Mila si nam ti jedina.
Mila, kuda si nam ravna,
Mila, kuda si planina!
Teci Dravo, Savo teci,
Nit' ti Dunav silu gubi,
Sinje more svijetu reci,
Da svoj narod Hrvat ljubi.
Dok mu njive sunce grije,
Dok mu hrašće bura vije,
Dok mu mrtve grobak krije,
Dok mu živo srce bije!
Our beautiful homeland,
Oh dear heroic land,
Our father's ancient glory,
May you be blessed forever.
Beloved, you are our sole glory,
Beloved, you are our only one,
Beloved, where you are plain,
Beloved, where you are mountain
Drava, Sava, flow on,
Nor you Danube, lose your power,
Deep blue sea, tell the world,
That a Croat loves his people.
Whilst the sun warms his fields,
Whilst winds lash his oak trees,
Whilst his lost ones are with grave
Whilst his living heart beats.

Location :

Southeastern Europe, bordering the Adriatic Sea, between Bosnia and Herzegovina and Slovenia.

Map :

Area :

Total : 56 594 sq km
Land : 55 974 sq km
Water : 620 sq km

Coastline :

5 835 km (mainland 1 777 km, islands 4 058 km).

Elevation extremes :

Lowest point : Adriatic Sea 0 m
Highest point : Dinara 1 830 m

Terrain :

Geographically diverse ; flat plains along Hungarian border, low mountains and highlands near Adriatic coastline and islands.

Natural resources :

Oil, some coal, bauxite, low-grade iron ore, calcium, gypsum, natural asphalt, silica, mica, clays, salt, hydropower.

Climate :

Mediterranean and continental ; continental climate predominant with hot summers and cold winters ; mild winters, dry summers along coast.

Population :

4 486 881 (Estimation 2010)

Nationality :

Demonym : croat, croatian

Ethnic groups :

Croat 89.6%, Serb 4.5%, other 5.9% (including Bosniak, Hungarian, Slovene, Czech, and Roma) (2001 census).

Religions :

Roman Catholic 87.8%, Orthodox 4.4%, other Christian 0.4%, Muslim 1.3%, other and unspecified 0.9%, none 5.2% (2001 census).

Languages :

Croatian 96.1%, Serbian 1%, other and undesignated 2.9% (including Italian, Hungarian, Czech, Slovak, and German) (2001 census).

Country name :

Conventional long form : Republic of Croatia
Conventional short form : Croatia
Local long form : Republika Hrvatska
Local short form : Hrvatska
Former : People's Republic of Croatia, Socialist Republic of Croatia

ISO country code :


Government type :

Presidential/parliamentary democracy.

Capital :

Zagreb (population : 804 200 - 2008, urban ; croatian largest city)

Other major cities :

Split, Rijeka, Osijek, Zadar, Dubrovnik.

Administrative divisions :

20 counties (zupanije, zupanija - singular) and 1 city/county Zagreb (grad - singular) :

C1 - Bjelovar-Bilogora County
C2 - Brod-Posavina County
C3 - City of Zagreb
C4 - Dubrovnik-Neretva County
C5 - Istra County
C6 - Karlovac County
C7 - Koprivnica-Krizevac County
C8 - Krapina-Zagorje County
C9 - Lika-Senj County
C10 - Medjimurje County
C11 - Osijek-Baranja County
C12 - Pozega-Slavonia County
C13 - Primorsko-Goranska County
C14 - Sibenik-Knin county
C15 - Sisak-Moslavina County
C16 - Split-Dalmatia County
C17 - Varazdin County
C18 - Virovitica-Podravina County
C19 - Vukovar-Srijem County
C20 - Zadar County
C21 - Zagreb County

Independance :

From Yugoslavia
25 June 1991 (decision)

8 October 1991 (declaration).

National holiday :

Independence Day, 8 October.
Note : 25 June 1991 was the day the Croatian parliament voted for independence; following a three-month moratorium to allow the European Community to solve the Yugoslav crisis peacefully, Parliament adopted a decision on 8 October 1991 to sever constitutional relations with Yugoslavia.

Constitution :

Adopted on 22 December 1990 ; revised 2000, 2001.

Executive branch :

Chief of state : President Ivo JOSIPOVIC (since 18 February 2010).

Head of government : Prime Minister Jadranka KOSOR (since 6 July 2009) ; Deputy Prime Ministers Bozidar PANKRETIC (since 6 July 2009), Darko MILINOVIC (since 13 November 2009), Ivan SUKER (since 13 November 2009), Djurdja ADLESIC (since 12 January 2008), Slobodan UZELAC (since 12 January 2008).

Cabinet : Council of Ministers named by the prime minister and approved by the parliamentary assembly.

Elections : president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 10 January 2010 (next to be held in December 2015) ; the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition usually appointed prime minister by the president and then approved by the assembly.

Election results : Ivo JOSIPOVIC elected president ; percent of vote in the second round - Ivo JOSIPOVIC 60%, Milan BANDIC 40%.

Legislative branch :

Unicameral Assembly or Sabor (153 seats; members elected from party lists by popular vote to serve four-year terms).

Judicial branch :

Supreme Court ; Constitutional Court ; judges for both courts are appointed for eight-year terms by the Judicial Council of the Republic, which is elected by the Assembly.

Currency :

Kuna (HRK)

Agriculture products :

Wheat, corn, sugar beets, sunflower seed, barley, alfalfa, clover, olives, citrus, grapes, soybeans, potatoes, livestock, dairy products.

Industries :

Chemicals and plastics, machine tools, fabricated metal, electronics, pig iron and rolled steel products, aluminum, paper, wood products, construction materials, textiles, shipbuilding, petroleum and petroleum refining, food and beverages, tourism.

Exports partners :

Italy 19.1%, Bosnia and Herzegovina 15.4%, Germany 10.8%, Slovenia 7.8%, Austria 5.8% (2008).

Imports partners :

Italy 16.9%, Germany 13.2%, Russia 10.3%, China 6.1%, Slovenia 5.5%, Austria 4.9% (2008).

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